Simply stated, the "circle theory of movement" is this:
-by properly redirecting the destructive momentum generated by an adversary during the course of an attack, the attacker can be
propelled in any number of directions by the use of a complementary circle-
Now all this is good and well, but what does it actually mean and more importantly, how does this theory apply to a defense situation?
If we look at the first phase of "properly redirecting momentum", this supplies an important starting point. How is momentum redirected?
it is of utmost importance that the attackers momentum should not be taken from straight on. It should be deflected. By the use of a side
step, circle based block, etc., the attackers force may be used against him. In this fashion, even the strongest, and most aggressive
attacker may be neutralized. it is said that if a person has a power of 10 and engages in combat with a person who possesses the power
of 6, then in a muscle confrontation the stronger will win. However in the redirection of power, the person with the power of 6 simply
adds 2 of his 6 to the power of 10 being exerted by his attacker during the attack. Due to this slight addition of power to the attackers
momentum, the attacker is then caused to be off balance and extremely vulnerable to counter attack.
Once the attack has been deflected, then the circle theory comes into play. When a movement is performed in a circular fashion, the
generation of power remains at a constant during the entire movement thus making the chance for a counter very difficult. As long as
the technique continues to flow and does not make sharp linear corners, the techniques will be effective. The defender must always make
himself the center of the circle force and attacker revolve around him.
In the application of the "circle theory", the three plains and two types of circles should be understood. They are:
- Horizontal Plane
- Vertical Plane
- Diagonal Plane
Types of Circles
- Open Circle
- Closed Circle
The first plane is the horizontal plane and it flows in a circle parallel to the ground and is usually a large circle. It makes full
use of both attacker momentum and deflection. This type of circle is best suited for use is attacker redirecting and attacker movement.
The second circular plane is a vertical plane. This particular plane flows perpendicular to the ground. this plane is well suited for
the execution of over-the-hip or shoulder throwing techniques. It is well adapted for taking full advantage of high or over head types
The third and final plane is the diagonal plane. The direction of this plane in relation to the ground is self explanatory. It is the
most versatile and easily applied of all the planes. The range of defense of the diagonal plane ranges from escape techniques to
devastating projection throws.
It is important to remember that once a certain plane is established, it must not be sharply changed to another plane. Although all the
planes can be combined to function together, (this is what evolves into combinations and attacker control), they must intertwine smoothly
with one another without a break in speed or momentum. A properly applied combination usually is in the form of a figure 8 or a spiral pattern.
Once the defense plane is established, then the next step is to decide what type of circle is necessary, and open or closed circle.
The first type of circle is the open circle. An open circle is one that the defender does not give a definite end to. This type of
circle is best used in throwing and projections. Through an appropriate extension of the attackers momentum and force, the defender
may easily deflect the attack from the intended target and send the attacker virtually "Sailing through the air".
The second type of circle is the closed circle. This type of circle is typical to joint locks and immobilization in that the attacker
is controlled all the way to the end of the circle. The objective of the defender in this type of circle is to channel the attackers
force back to its source thus making the attacker the target of his own attack. In this way all the effort that the attacker puts into
the attack will be used directly against him.
In understanding the "theory of circular movement" the defenders body should become a spinning top deflecting anything that comes in
contact with it. The circles should always be positive, smooth , and flowing no matter what force appears and attempts to interfere.
As the student becomes able to apply this theory to a typical attack-defense application, then a true insight into flexible and flowing
power over muscular brute force will naturally come out. At this time the student will be well on the path of mastering Ju Jutsu.